The vibrancy of Filipino as a language
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Article 1: Excerpts from the article "The vibrancy of Filipino as a language" by ROMY CAYABYAB

The Filipino language consists of words integrated from the various Philippine dialects as well as from foreign languages.

For example, consider the following figures based on Mr. Renato Perdon's "The Making of a National Language":

A big percentage of the entries in the official Filipino dictionary issued in 1991 by the Commission on Filipino Language were foreign loan words. Specifically, Spanish words account for 5,210 words followed by English (1,907), Chinese (232), Malay (176 words), Latin (70), French (46), Sanskrit (29), Arabic (28), German (25), Mexican (20), and Japanese (13).

There are also 7 words each from the Indonesian and Italian languages, 2 words each from the Argentinian, Australian, Hawaiian, Javanese and Swish languages. One word each came from Aztec, Czechoslovakian, Finish, Greek, India, and Russian languages.

About 55% of the words integrated into Filipino comes from the major dialects in the Philippines, namely: Bicol (301 words), Cebuano (526 words), Hiligaynon (564 words), Ilocano (122 words), Kapampangan (51 words), Pangasinan (82 words), Old Tagalog / Tagalog (8,463 words), and Samar-Leyte (459 words).

There are also 328 Tausug words, 222 words from the Maranao dialect, 99 words from Maguindanao, 23 words from Samal, 16 words from the Tingian, 12 words from Isneg and another 12 words from Tagbanua.

Such is the vibrancy and dynamism of Filipino as a language. We will not be surprised if these days, the number of English words have increased. For how do you translate the contemporary words, especially those related to the Internet and other areas of information technology, in Filipino?

Has anyone started looking for the exact equivalent of the following common words: Internet, modem, web site, browser, email, upload, download, hyperlink, toolbar?

We will not be surprised to know that in Tagalog there are none! But in Filipino there are. The equivalent words are the native words --- except that these are spelled in a manner that is distinctly Filipino! Example? Try web sayt for web site, brawser for browser, and tulbar for toolbar.

Article # 2: Books on the Spanish loan-words or borrowings used in the Filipino languages:

The noted Spanish linguist, Antonio Quilis asserts that the two major Filipino languages, Visaya and Tagalog, has a Spanish content of at least 20% while other sources including the Spanish newspaper "El Pais" estimates the Spanish word content of Visayas and Tagalog at 25% . The following books contain detailed data and information of the depth and influence of the Spanish language on the Filipino Languages and dialects:

1.)"Hispanismos en Cebuano" by Antonio Quilis. Madrid, Spain. 1976. 134 pages

2.)"Hispanismos En El Tagalo" by Oficina de Educacion Iberoamericana. Madrid, Spain. 1972. 632 pages

3.)"Spanish Loan-Words in the Tagalog Language" by Jose Villa Panganiban. Manila, Philippines:Bureau of Printing, 1961. 86 pages

4.)"A Database of Spanish Loan Words in Ilocano" by Elizabeth Calinawagan. 1998.

5.)A list of Spanish words used in the Capampangan language from "Spanish Relation with the Kapampangan Language and Culture" by Alejandro S. Camiling, CPA with Teresita Z. Camiling, BSE, MA

6.)"Los Hispanismos En Los Medios De Communicacion Social Filipinos:Estudio Linguistico" by Teresita Alcantara Y Antonio. 280 pages

7.)"Mga Hispanismo sa Filipino Batay sa Komunikasyong Pangmadla ng Filipinas-Pag-aaral Linggwistiko"(Translation of the Doctoral Dissertation) by Teresita Alcantara Y Antonio. Quezon City: Sentro ng Wikang Filipino.

8.)"Léxicos Hispánicos En El Filipino Moderno" by Teresita Alcantara Y Antonio Actas del Congreso En Manila de Unión Latina. CASSAMARCA, Italia, 2000.

9.)"Contigo: Gabay Sa Pag-aaral Ng Wikang Kastila Sa Tulong Ng Wikang Filipino" by Edgardo Tiamson. 1997. 168 pages

10.)"Diccionario de Filipinismos" con la revisión de lo que al respecto lleva publicado la Real Academia Española. by Wenceslao E. Retana. New York, Paris. 1921. 174 pages.

11.)"Partial List of over 1,000 Hispanismos" by Antonio Faustino II. .

Reference for article # 1:

"Spanish Made Easy For Filipinos" main web page